Textile and Denim processing
Since the first amylases employed for desizing of textile fabrics in 1950s, the scope of Textile Enzymes in textile wet processing has been on its increase and has widened remarkably in the last decade. Textile Enzymes are being applied in almost every step of textile wet processing for desizing, scouring, bleaching and finishing of textile fabrics. Textile Enzymes are employed in the processes of desizing by treatment with Alpha Amylase Enzymes where starch is degraded in dextrins and removed from the fabric. Cotton fibres based on cellulose can be improved by an enzymatic treatment known as Biopolishing.
Biopolishing Enzyme treatment prevents pilling. This treatment gives the fabric a smoother and glossier appearance. The treatment is used to remove fuzz - the tiny strands of fibre that protrude from the surface of yarn. A ball of fuzz is called a pill in the textile enzymes and processing field. After Biopolishing, the fuzz and pilling are reduced. The other benefits of removing fuzz are a softer and smoother handle, and superior color brightness. In denim finishing a small dose of Textile Enzyme can replace several kilograms of stones. In the traditional stonewashing process, the denim was finished and was faded by the abrasive action of pumice stones on the garment surface. Nowadays denim finishing and processing units are now using Textile Enzymes (Cellulase Enzymes). Textile Enzymes work by the loosening and the homogeneous removal of the indigo dye on the denim The process is now know as Biofading. The damage to the machine as well as to garment is much less and so also the generation of pumice dust. Biofading has opened up new possibilities in denim finishing by increasing the variety of finishes available and it is now possible to fade denim to a greater degree without running the risk of damaging the garment.
Productivity can also be increased because laundry machines contain fewer stones or no stones and more garments. The wash off process becomes less cumbersome and hence the productivity increases. Bioscouring is the process of purifying cotton fabrics from impurities such as wax, pectins, hemicelluloses, and mineral salts using Textile Enzymes. Pectins acts like glue between the fibre core and the waxes which can be destroyed by an Alkaline Pectinase Enzyme. Using Textile Enzymes instead of hazardous chemicals for Bioscouring process, the COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biological oxygen demand) and TDS, in the waste water can brought down. Peroxide Killing Enzymes (Catalase Enzymes) provide for an eco-friendly way of removing the Hydrogen Peroxide content of the Textile fabric post bleaching of Textile products.